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ABS-CBN
2 - ABS-CBN-2
Current ABS-CBN Logo (January 1, 2014-present)

Type

Broadcast commercial television network

Country

Philippines

Availability

National

First air date

June 11, 1946 (radio)
October 23, 1953 (television)

Slogan

In the Service of the Filipino Worldwide.

Owner

ABS-CBN Corporation

Key People

Eugenio Lopez III (Chairman)
Charo Santos-Concio (President, and CEO)
Cory Vidanes (Head, Free TV)

Former names

BEC (1946-1953)
ABS (1953-1956)
CBN (1956-1969)
BBC (1973-1986)

Launch date

June 11, 1946 (radio)
October 23, 1953 (television)

Website

www.abs-cbn.com


ABS-CBN (Alto Broadcasting System - Chronicle Broadcasting Network) is a major commercial television network in the Philippines. It is the oldest and the leading television network in the country[1][2][3] with an advertising revenue of 19 billion for the fiscal year 2012.[4] It is a unit of the media conglomerate ABS-CBN Corporation. It was launched on 23 October 1953 under the name Alto Broadcasting System, and is among the first commercial television networks in Asia. Its headquarters are in Quezon City with regional offices and news bureaus in over 25 provincial areas throughout the country.

The flagship television station of ABS-CBN in Metro Manila is DWWX-TV (VHF channel 2) while provincially, the network operates through its Regional Network Group of 71 television stations (consisting of 25 originating stations, 38[5] relay stations and 8 affiliate television stations). Its programming is also available outside the Philippines as The Filipino Channel.

HistoryEdit

BEC logo

Original Version of Boliano Electronics Corporation (1946-1953)

Alto Broadcasting System logo

Compuer Version of Alto Broadcasting System (1953-1967)

Chronicle Broadcasting Network logo

Original Version of Chronicle Broadcasting Network (1956-1967)

CBN logo

Computer Version of Chronicle Broadcasting Network (1956-1967)

ABS-CBN traces its history to the first Philippine television station DZAQ-TV, owned by Bolinao Electronics Corporation which was later renamed Alto Broadcasting System.

James Lindenberg, owner of BEC, was the first to apply for a license to the Philippine Congress to establish a television station in 1949. His request was granted on 14 June 1950. Because of the strict import controls and the lack of raw materials needed to open a TV station in the Philippines during the mid-20th century, Lindenberg branched to radio broadcasting instead.[6]

Judge Antonio Quirino, brother of former President Elpidio Quirino, also tried to apply for a license to Congress, but was denied. He later purchased stocks from BEC and subsequently gained the controlling stock to rename the company from BEC to Alto Broadcasting System (ABS).

DZAQ-TV began commercial television operations on 23 October 1953; the first fully licensed commercial television station in the Philippines. The first program to air was a garden party at the Quirino residence in Sitio Alto, San Juan. After the premiere telecast, the station followed a four-hour-a-day schedule, from six to ten in the evening.[6]

In 1955, Manila Chronicle owner Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and former Vice President Fernando Lopez, acquired a radio-TV franchise from the Congress and immediately established Chronicle Broadcasting Network (CBN) in 1956. On 24 February 1957 Lopez invited Judge Quirino to his house for breakfast and ABS was bought under a contract written on a table napkin. The corporate name was reverted to Bolinao Electronics Corporation immediately after the purchase of ABS.[6]

ABS 3 and CBN 9 logo

ABS 3 and CBN 9 logo (1961-1963)

ABS-CBN 1963-1969 logo

An ABS-CBN short-lived logo was used from 1963 to 1967

Image

ABS-CBN Unused logo 1967 short live

With the establishment of DZXL-TV 9 of CBN in 1956, the Lopez brothers controlled both television channels in the archipelago, culminating in the first wave of expansion. The monopoly in television was broken in 1961, when DZBB-TV 7 was established by the Republic Broadcasting System (now GMA Network, Inc.) (RBS), owned by Robert Stewart, on the same year it launched the nation's first regional and provincial television station in Cebu City on 24 July.[6]

In 1967, the company was renamed ABS–CBN Broadcasting Corporation. This company became the formal merger of the two stations DZAQ-TV 3 (ABS) and DZXL-TV 9 (CBN).

In 1966, ABS-CBN became the first TV network to broadcast certain shows in color and by 18 December 1968, ABS-CBN opened its present day Broadcast Center complex in Bohol Avenue, Quezon City. It was among the most advanced broadcasting facility of its kind in Asia. Full color broadcasts began in 1971 on ABS-CBN 2 with the availability of more color television sets around Manila and neighboring municipalities and cities.[6]

ABS-CBN 1969-1972 logo

The pre-martial law logo of ABS-CBN (February 2, 1967-September 21, 1972)

In 1969, DZAQ-TV transferred to channel 2, while its sister station DZXL-TV transferred to channel 4. This was in response to frequency adjustments, giving room for the television station of the Kanlaon Broadcasting System (now Radio Philippines Network) to occupy the Channel 9 frequency.

When then President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972, the station was forced to shut down. The company was seized from the Lopez brothers and its newly built Broadcast Center became the home of state-run TV stations Banahaw Broadcasting Corporation (BBC Channel 2, with call sign changed to DWWX-TV), Government Television (GTV Channel 4, with call sign changed to DWGT-TV and later renamed MBS-4), Kanlaon Broadcasting System (KBS Channel 9) and Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation (IBC Channel 13).[6]

The long hibernation of the station ended on February 1986. As the EDSA revolt broke out in the eighties, and Marcos' grip on power debilitated, the reformists in the military contended the broadcasting network would be a vital asset for victory. Thus, at 10 AM on February 24, they attacked and took the ABS-CBN Broadcast Center that was then the home of MBS-4.[6]

ABS-CBN's Star Network 1986-2000 logo

The post-revolution logo of ABS-CBN (September 14, 1986-December 31, 1999)

When Marcos was deposed, the network was sequestered and returned Channel 2 to the Lopezes but not Channel 4. On 14 September 1986, ABS-CBN went back on the air, broadcasting from what used to be their main garage at Broadcast Center in the pre-Martial Law days. The network was forced to share space in the building that was rightfully their own with the government TV station Channel 4. At the time, money had been scarce while resources were limited; offices were used as dressing rooms and other equipment such as chairs, tables, and phones were in short supply.[6]

In late 1986, the network was faltering, ranking last among the five stations in the Philippines and was suffering heavy losses. Eugenio "Geny" Lopez Jr. by early 1987 brought in programming whiz and ABS-CBN veteran Freddie Garcia, then working for GMA Network, and set him loose to work his magic touch.

Six months later on 1 March 1987, Channel 2 was relaunched with the live musical special, "The Star Network: Ang Pagbabalik Ng Bituin" (The Return of the Star). In 1988, ABS-CBN was topping the Mega Manila ratings, a position it had never relinquished for 16 years.

Later that year, the station launched nationwide domestic satellite programming and by 1994, expanded its operations worldwide. In 1999, Channel 2 launched its 120-kilowatt Millennium Transmitter, resulting in improved signal quality throughout Mega Manila.

ABS-CBN 2000-2014 logo

ABS-CBN logo (January 1, 2000-December 31, 2013)

In 2005, ABS-CBN re-upgraded its transmitter into a very high capacity of 346.2 kilowatts resulting on a much clearer signal in Metro Manila.

During the historic 2010 Philippine presidential election, in response to the first automation of the election in the country, ABS-CBN utilized a technology from Orad Hi Tech Systems Ltd. that utilizes the principles of augmented reality.[7] The technology uses real-time image processing system for live broadcasts of 3D computer-generated imagery against a real set or background. ABS-CBN also utilized what is probably the biggest touch screen display to be used in a Philippine television show. A new set dubbed as the "WAR" (Wireless Audience Response) room was specifically designed for the said election coverage.[8] The coverage of ABS-CBN became the third top trending topic worldwide on the social networking site Twitter.[9][10]

Ownership structure Edit

ABS-CBN is jointly-owned its the major shareholders; the Lopez family Its corporate shareholding is is owned by Lopez, Inc. (57.24%), ABS-CBN Holdings Corporation (33.97%) and Public ownership (8.79%)

Shareholder is joint-owned its Lopez, Inc. thru Lopez Holdings Corporation and ABS-CBN Holdings Corporation.

Regional Network GroupEdit

Main article: List of ABS-CBN Corporation channels and stations

The Regional Network Group (RNG) is the provincial network subsidiary of ABS-CBN. It is responsible for simultaneously airing most of the shows seen on ABS-CBN's flagship station in the provinces. The Regional Network Group has several stations in each region outside Mega Manila to ensure nationwide coverage. The local stations also produce their own newscasts which air prior to TV Patrol and other local programming which air on Sundays. Regional Network Group (RNG) glorified its roots while reaching out wider audience in 2007, consistently building on local content and developing infrastructure to deliver better service and cement its position as the top-rating regional network in the country. Regional versions of favorite TV shows were created, enabling ABS-CBN to reach out and connect with wider audiences worldwide. The launch of the local game show Kapamilya Winner Ka! in Visayas and Mindanao. Gandang Umaga, Pilipinas in Northern Luzon, and the 17th local TV Patrol in Southern Tagalog (Region IV-A & IV-B), provided more relevance to regional audiences. On 29 January 2011, Charie Villa was appointed as the new head of RNG.[11] On 15 April 2011, RNG launched ChoosePhilippines, a new website aimed to promote tourism in the Philippines by sharing photos and stories of the most extravagant places, culture, and arts of the Philippine island.[12]

Slogan Edit

Main article: List of ABS-CBN Corporation slogans

Since 1969, the network has started using a channel logo beginning on DZAQ-TV with the early channel 2 logo for use as a promotion from 1969 to 1972 as The Family Channel. The frequency was later awarded to BBC as DWWX-TV from 1973 to 1986, and had a different logo used. Channel 2 is used as the frecuency of the flagship station of ABS-CBN in Metro Manila until now.

ABS-CBN introduced an innovation to the channel 2 logo from 1986 to 1992. At first, the channel 2 logo is introduced into ABS-CBN, after the dissolution of BBC in July. The features of the first channel 2 logo is a wing-shaped blue crest with a white curve at the top and a white line as a tail, the Broadway 2 logo was used from 1986 to 1987. It has a slogan name Watch Us Do It Again! as the station ID aired since the network's revival.

After six months of carefully selected plans, the first tri-ribbon 2 logo laced with a rhomboidal star came to be on 1 March 1987. The tri-ribbon 2 logo's color is white carried the slogan The Star Network when it aired as a station ID to reclaim the dominance in TV ratings. By 1988, the ribbons in the tri-ribbon 2 logo are tri-colored with red, green and blue. Truly, the tri-ribbon 2 logo was accidentally coming from a shooting star in the form of 2. Similarly, most numerical channel logos within this slogan have a star and versions came into regional TV channels like 3 (DYCB-TV in Cebu and DZRR-TV in Baguio), 4 (DYXL-TV in Bacolod and DXAS-TV in Davao) and other regional stations. The tri-ribbon was also used on microphone flags until 2001.

SarimanokEdit

The Sarimanok, a legendary bird in Philippine Folklore was first used in 1966 to identify color broadcasts (somewhat similar on how the NBC peacock has been utilized). In 1993, which happens to be the Chinese Year of the Rooster, ABS-CBN relaunched the Sarimanok with a new station ID featuring the legendary bird. The Sarimanok ID became utmostly associated with the channel that ABS-CBN opted it to become the station's mascot. ABS-CBN later named its new 24-hour news channel the Sarimanok News Network, the precursor of the ABS-CBN News Channel.

Evolution of ABS-CBN logos Edit

The ABS-CBN corporate logo started from the Alto Broadcasting System's (ABS) radio tower transmission waves graphic element and original typography that was conceptualized in 1956. James Lindenberg commissioned Delfin L. Borrero, then a fresh fine arts graduate of the University of the Philippines in Diliman, to develop the ABS logo and its logotype. This would later make Borrero the creator of the iconic ABS-CBN logo of today.

In 1966 before ABS and CBN merged, the original logo was modified by Borrero as also the creator of the first logo.

In 1967, with the incorporation and final merger of the Quirino-owned Alto Broadcasting System (ABS) and the Lopez-owned Chronicle Broadcasting Network (CBN), the logo was revised with the same original graphic elements and including the CBN typography. The logo was rendered in black and white for station ID.

The colored rendition of the 1967 logo first appeared on the first color TV broadcast in the country within the year, and later became the company's logo upon its revival. The tri-band circles are in RGB. Red for Luzon, Green for Visayas and Blue for Mindanao. The colored variation was used subsequently until 2000.

On 1 January 2000, ABS-CBN modified its corporate logo. The previous logo, which heralded ABS-CBN as the largest TV network in the country gave way to the present logo's styling. The tri-band circles derived from the original radio transmission waves graphic element with colors, red, green, blue with the vertical line at the center still remained and the logotype was enhanced, with the ABS and CBN names merged to create the ABS-CBN name now situated below with a new, modern typography.

In 2013, ABS-CBN announced that they were going to use a new logo as part of its 60th anniversary of Philippine Television. In the new logo, the logo remained in its 2000 design, but the rings and line are shown to be thicker, and the text used a new simplified Rotis font style which includes hook-less A, B, and N letters, and a completely different version of the C which replaces the 2000-style C letter, with the S letter being the only one unchanged. The square changed its color to white (this was done probably to reflect ABS-CBN's "out of the box" status more significantly), and if in case the logo is placed on a white background, the square is no longer used. The logo was unveiled on 7 October 2013 and was officially launched on 1 January 2014, 14 years after the 2000 logo was launched.

Today, the tri-band radio transmission waves graphic element and the original typography are used in derivatives as logos and logotypes of subsidiaries of the ABS-CBN Corporation.


ProgrammingEdit

Main article: List of programs broadcast by ABS-CBN

Most of the program line-up of ABS-CBN are originally produced by the company's television production unit. These include programs ranging from musical and variety shows, reality shows, game shows, entertainment and lifestyle talk shows, sitcoms, and gag shows. Soap operas and drama anthologies on the other hand are produced under Star Creatives and Dreamscape Entertainment Television, while news, documentaries and public affairs programs are produced by ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs and other independent production outfit while licensed franchises from abroad are co-produced by the licensee. Some 15 percent of the program line-up of ABS-CBN though are imported from abroad, including animation series from Japan, television series from Taiwan, and foreign films mostly from the United States, Hong Kong, and Thailand. ABS-CBN also airs special events like Oscars, Miss Universe, Binibining Pilipinas, Miss Earth, Miss Philippines Earth, NHL, Top-Rank boxing, and other sports and awarding events.

Digital transtionEdit

Digital terrestrial televisionEdit

ABS-CBN Corporation initially applied for a license from the National Telecommunications Commission to operate a digital terrestrial television service in the country back in 2007.[13] ABS-CBN planned to utilize multiplex to offer ABS-CBN, ABS-CBN Sports+Action and 5 additional specialty TV channels. The conglomerate is expected to spend at least 1 billion pesos annually for the next 5 years for its DTT transition.[14] ABS-CBN utilized UHF channel 51 Manila (692–698 MHz), later UHF Channel 43, for test broadcasts in the DVB-T format. ABS-CBN was expected to begin digital test broadcasts in January 2009.[13][15]

In June 2010, the NTC announced that it would formally adopt the Japanese standard ISDB-T for digital broadcasting and issued a circular commanding all the country's television networks to switch-off their analog services on 31 December 2015 at 11:59 p.m. Philippine Standard Time (UTC+8).[16]

In April 2011, the conglomerate announced further details about its DTT plans, which would offer ABS-CBN and Studio 23(currently ABS-CBN Sports+Action). In addition, five new channels which will be exclusively available to its digital users will be offered once the digital broadcast start. The specialty TV channel line-up include one news channel (DZMM TeleRadyo), two youth-oriented channels (Yey!, Myx 2), an educational channel (Knowledge Channel), and a movie channel (Cine Mo!). The conglomerate is also planning to utilize the 1seg (one segment) broadcast standard for handheld devices.[17][18][19][20]

High-definition televisionEdit

On 19 April 2009, ABS-CBN acquired 24 units of Sony HDC-1400R high-definition professional camcorders in preparation for high definition production.[21] In July 2009, ABS-CBN Sports produced the first domestic high definition telecast; the coverage of the UAAP Season 72 basketball game which was shown on its sports channel Balls.[22][23] In addition, two of its three Eurocopter AS355 news chopper are capable of transmitting high-definition live feeds from its 5 axis gimbal HD camera mounted on the nose of the aircraft.[24]

On 20 April 2010, Ikegami Tsushinki Co., Ltd., a Japanese manufacturer of professional and broadcast television equipment announced the acquisition of ABS-CBN Corporation of 75 units of Ikegami GFCAM HDS-V10 tapeless Flash RAM HD camcorders. The cameras will be deployed to all of its regional stations across the country, including its headquarters in Quezon City.[25]

TapelessEdit

In 2007, the conglomerate acquired a tapeless technology from EVS, the first media company in Southeast Asia to do so.[23] The technology provided the network a non-linear and digital post production workflow as well as wireless access on remote areas via media access management system. The EVS technologies will be integrated to equipments acquired from Avid Technology[26][27] and Ruckus Wireless.[28]

Digital archivingEdit

ABS-CBN Corporation started digitizing its content in 2004.[29] In 2007, the conglomerate invested 4 million dollars for a Media Asset Management System (MAMS) from IBM Corporation that includes a hardware infrastructure support and a 2 petabytes (2000 terabytes) of digital storage that is expected to grow by 36% over the years as ABS-CBN is already generating over 700 hours of content a month.[30] The MAMS will be integrated to the million dollar Dalet Digital Media Systems[31] and Avid Unity ISIS (Infinitely Scalable Intelligent Storage)[29] that will enable ABS-CBN to digitize and store its over 200,000 hours of television content and its library of over 2000 films.[32] The Big Dipper Digital Content & Design, Inc. is the subsidiary that oversees all of its digital assets.

High-definition broadcastingEdit

Although ABS-CBN is preparing digital transition to digital television broadcasts by beyond 2016, even they already purchased several professional HD cameras & HD video equipments for shooting, live coverages & post-production purposes (as well as editing & finalization) High-definition broadcasting for ABS-CBN would be requires some time for finding ways to testing digital broadcast achievements. Currently digital broadcasting tests with either DVB-T format or ISDB-T on some several channels (such as is, ABS-CBN with 5 new channels set aside: DZMM TeleRadyo, Yey!, Myx 2, Knowledge Channel & Cine Mo!) is rendered and viewed in Standard definition format (SDTV) and is possible to viewed in High-definition format (HDTV).

For now, it currently broadcasts both analog & digital signals for television viewers is rendered and viewed in SDTV. HDTV broadcasts is expected on Feb. 11, 2015.

CompetitionEdit

Since its inception in 1953 until 1961, ABS-CBN (then Alto Broadcasting System) was the only commercial television network in the country. It was only until the 1960s that television became common and at that time, although audience measurement has not yet invented, ABS was favored by giant companies like Procter and Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Caltex. When the martial law was declared, ABS-CBN and other television networks were forced to shut-down and held control by the Government. When it was re-established in 1986 as a commercial television, it had failed to regain its glory days and was ranked behind among the five television networks. It was not until 1987, when it was re-branded as "The Star Network" that it had slowly regained its foothold in TV ratings. In 1992, AGB Nielsen Philippines was founded and a new pace in television history was introduced. In 2007, TNS Philippines started to offer media research through Kantar Media Philippines (formerly Kantar/TNS). In 2008, AGB Nielsen Philippines released the all-time highest rating shows in the Philippines, with 7 of the top 10 highest rating shows all from ABS-CBN with the shows like The Battle: Pacquiao vs. Morales, Rosalinda, Esperanza, Princess Sarah, Miss Universe 1997, Pangako sa 'Yo, and Maria Mercedes.[33] At the turn of the first decade of the century, competition was up against its closest competitor GMA Network and TV5. Moreover, the data released by AGB Nielsen show the Mega Manila data, which favors GMA in the Mega Manila ratings while Kantar Media releases the Total Philippines ratings (National Urban and Rural Households), which favors ABS-CBN.

Controversies and scandalsEdit

In recent years, ABS-CBN has been involved in several controversies and scandals involving its subsidiaries and programming.

Wowowee scandals and incidentsEdit

Template:Further

Two major incidents involving ABS-CBN have involved the networks' variety show Wowowee. Demand for tickets to a one-year anniversary episode of the show at the PhilSports Arena in 2006 caused a deadly stampede killing 76 people.[34] Over a year later in August 2007, the show became entrenched in another scandal involving the possibility of a new game on the show being rigged as evident by a "mechanical glitch" which occurred during an episode,[35] which grew greater after Eat Bulaga! host Joey de Leon and Wowowee host Willie Revillame started exchanging attacks on-air against each other during their respective and competing shows.[36] The incident later lead to a probe by the Department of Trade and Industry led by senator Mar Roxas (which was jokingly suggested by Joey during a speech he made on Eat Bulaga! in reference to the Hello Garci scandal, dubbing it "Hello Pappy")[37]

Nielsen TV ratings scandalEdit

Main article: AGB Nielsen Philippine TV ratings controversy

In late 2007, ABS-CBN accused AGB Nielsen Philippines of tampering with the ratings during their 2007 ratings surveys.[38][39] On January 8, Quezon City regional trial court (RTC) junked ABS-CBN's case against AGB Nielsen saying it was prematurely filed.

Writ of AmparoEdit

On 22 January 2008, Asia-Pacific Director Jacqueline Park of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) supported the petition for writ of amparo filed by the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation's 11 employees (led by Ces Oreña-Drilon) with the Supreme Court to rule on the legality of journalists' arrests concerning the failed Manila Peninsula rebellion. It stated: "We support employees from ABS-CBN in standing up for their democratic rights to work free from harassment and intimidation, especially from government officials and authorities." Meanwhile the Supreme Court required the respondents to file comment to the amparo petition within 10 days. Further, Harry Roque, National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP)'s lawyer announced its filing of a class lawsuit for injunction with damages (Article 33, New Civil Code of the Philippines) against the Philippine National Police, among others.


ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

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